Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII Advanced Materials and Technologies
2.3 High pressure power plants
This chapter provides an introduction to high pressure power plants (HPPP), which fulfill the function of supplying peak load, power and frequency control, and power and energy. HPPP are particularly suitable for covering short-term peak-demand. By calculating the potential levels of energy production for different water intake altitudes, the optimum water intake altitude can be determined. In many regions, HPPP with their large reservoirs are also used for multi-purpose schemes such as drinking water supply and flood control. The design of a HPPP is determined by technical criteria such as catchment area inflow and topographic as well as geological conditions to build a dam and a reservoir; and the requirements of the electric grid and the energy market. Major components of HPPP include dam with reservoir or weir, head race system and surge chamber, powerhouse or underground powerhouse, tailrace structure, and tailrace balancing reservoir. Different types of dams and their typical cross sections are discussed. The various types of dams set the choice of the possible types of spillways. Five different types of water conduits and headraces, namely, free surface canals, free surface tunnels, pressure tunnels, pressure shafts, and penstocks, are also discussed.