Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties: Siliceous Nanobiomaterials


In the scope of silica materials across the breadth of research and technology, perhaps one of the most active and exciting research areas is that of siliceous nanobiomaterials – materials forged at the interface of silica and biomaterials that give rise to and augment a multitude of biotechnological applications. In the development of these hybrid silica nanomaterials, taking cues from both the short term in early silica research to the long term in nature itself, the main rationale for the application of silica has been to enhance functionality through the adaptation and exploitation of properties inherent to silica materials and chemistry. In fact, siliceous nanobiomaterials are not a human creation: Silica interactions with cells and other biological entities are ancient and ubiquitous. Stromatolites, Earth’s earliest fossils, consist of bacteria within silica-containing mineral matrices as an early example of biomineralization. Even today diatoms and radiolarian sponges employ silica shells for protection. Incorporation of siliceous components within nanobiomaterials has mainly been motivated by properties and attributes of silica that have made it a valuable research tool for decades. Silica is readily formed by hydrolysis and condensation of simple silicate precursors (e.g., tetramethyl orthosilicate, TMOS, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS, are the most common). In addition, silica materials can be tuned in size, porosity, and pore size by controlling reaction rates and chemistries. Silica also provides good mechanical strength while being compatible for biological applications. Lastly, silica and its precursors are relatively inexpensive materials and provide for ease of production and scale-up.

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Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties: Siliceous Nanobiomaterials
Book Title
Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties
Book DOI
Chapter DOI
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  • Bharat Bhushan Send Email (1)
  • Dan Luo Send Email (2)
  • Scott R. Schricker Send Email (3)
  • Wolfgang Sigmund Send Email (4)
  • Stefan Zauscher Send Email (5)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 1 Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • 2 Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • 3 Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care, The Ohio State University, College of Dentistry, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • 4 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  • 5 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
  • Authors
  • Wei Han Send Email (6) (7)
  • Linnea K. Ista (8)
  • Gautam Gupta (9)
  • Linying Li (6) (7)
  • James M. Harris (6) (7)
  • Gabriel P. López Send Email (6) (7) (10)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 6 NSF Research Triangle Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Durham, NC, 27708, USA
  • 7 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA
  • 8 Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA
  • 9 Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, USA
  • 10 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, 136 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC, 27708, USA
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