Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII Advanced Materials and Technologies
2.2 River power plants
This chapter deals with river power plants, which, under normal conditions, belong to low pressure power plants. There are a few different classification types where river power plants can be included. The most common classifications are by (i) storage capacity, (ii) pressure head, and (iii) installed capacity. Other classifications refer to the layout of the power plant and its positioning within the river bed or in a diversion canal. A hydroelectric power plant consists mainly of the power station and some auxiliary buildings like the weir, which is necessary to bank up the water thus creating the needed head and - in case of a navigable river - a sluice to maintain navigation. The chapter closely examines the power station and deals with these auxiliary constructions. Components of hydroelectric plants, namely, power house, turbine layout, and cavitation are also described. Finally, the chapter discusses the ecological aspects of hydro power plants, such as residual flow, fish passages and effects on the groundwater table.