Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII Advanced Materials and Technologies

2.7 Turbines for hydroelectric power

Abstract

This chapter provides theory and types of turbines for hydroelectric power. Fourneyron’s turbine, the first true high-efficiency water turbine, was of the radial-outflow type and reached a maximum efficiency of 85%. The three types of water turbines that proved superior in a certain range of heads are: Kaplan turbine (including the tubular turbine) for low heads, Francis turbine for medium heads and Pelton turbine for high heads. The application of these three types of water turbines is illustrated. The specific blade energy H B is correlated to the specific fluid energy available at a hydro power plant. Examples and working principles, hydraulic designs, the manufacture and operating problems of various turbines such as Kaplan turbine, Francis turbine, pump turbine, Pelton turbine and Michell-Bánki turbine are described. To understand the performance of a turbine at part load or overload, the velocity triangles of a Francis turbine is considered. The performance of a turbine as a function of both flow rate Q and head H is frequently represented by lines of constant shaft efficiency in a Q - H -diagram, also called the Hill diagram. Typical investment costs (in US$ per kWh) for the different types of turbines, dependent on the capacity (in MW), are illustrated. Typical investment costs for synchronous generators are also presented.

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Title
2.7 Turbines for hydroelectric power
Book Title
Renewable Energy
In
2 Hydroelectric power
Book DOI
10.1007/b83039
Chapter DOI
10.1007/10858992_8
Part of
Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII Advanced Materials and Technologies
Volume
3C
Editors
  • K. Heinloth Send Email (100)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 100 Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12, 53115, Bonn, Germany
  • Authors
  • W. Braitsch Send Email (27)
  • H. Haas (27)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 27 E-ON Wasserkraft GmbH, Landshut, Germany
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