Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter Techniques


This chapter briefly discusses the techniques for surface structural analysis. The most widely used and fruitful surface structural method over the last 30 years has been LEED. This method is routinely used in almost all surface studies to obtain quick information on the overall quality of the surface, on the presence of domains, on the surface lattice periodicity and symmetry. More careful LEED-spot shape analysis is used to characterize surface disorder and defects. Moreover LEED I-V analysis has provided complete structural information for many surface reconstructions. Besides LEED, other techniques for surface structural analysis include various diffraction methods (e.g. photoelectron diffraction, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, and He-diffraction), ion scattering (e.g. MEIS, MEIS-CB), SEXAFS, and various microscopies (e.g. TEM, STM, and AFM). In recent years STM has emerged as a particularly powerful surface structural method. STM provides information on the local surface geometry with a resolution which can reach a few tenths of one Å both vertically and laterally, so that individual atoms can be actually "seen". For this reason, STM has given a crucial contribution to the understanding of complex surface structures with many atoms per surface cell such as Si(111)7 x 7 or Au(111)23 x 1.

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Title Techniques
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2.2.1 Introduction
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Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter
  • G. Chiarotti
  • Authors
  • A. Fasolino
  • A. Selloni
  • A. Shkrebtii
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