Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter Image states


This chapter discusses surface states (SS) and image state or image potential states (IS) of metals. The SS exist in energy gaps of a bulk band structure. The SS is localized at a surface-atomic plane and decays exponentially into the bulk. IS are confined to the space between a crystal surface and image potential which describes the electrostatic force acting on an electron in front of the surface. An electron in the IS does not have enough energy to escape into the vacuum because of its own image potential created by the polarization charge it induces at the surface. Bremsstrahlung spectra of copper, gold for electrons incident normal to the surface is illustrated. Energy and spatial scales characterizing image states on metal surfaces (Ag (100)) are shown. Schematic potential in the vicinity of a crystal surface is given.

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Title Image states
Book Title
Electronic and Vibrational Properties
3.1.1 Introduction
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Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter
  • G. Chiarotti
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  • K. Jakobi
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