Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter Standing waves


This chapter discusses a very popular technique for studying surfaces by X-ray diffraction which is based on the idea of setting up a system of standing waves with spacing between nodes equal to the lattice spacing of the crystal. Standing waves are set up inside and outside of the crystal in a region in which the incident and diffracted beams overlap and are able to interfere. In this case the nodes (and anti-nodes) have the same spacing as the lattice planes, and the registry between standing waves and lattice varies over the rocking width of the diffraction profile. The standing waves technique was originally developed as a tool for locating impurity atoms in a crystal lattice. In this work standing waves effects have been observed from a platinum-carbon layered synthetic microstructure, with a spacing of d = 56 Å, on which a double layer of iodide and copper was electrodeposited. In this technique the electrons emitted by the crystal are energy-analyzed at any point of the rocking curve. An interesting technique of standing waves with electron analysis exploits the peculiarities of the diffraction mechanism when the incident beam is perpendicular to the crystal surface, and the wave length λ is scanned rather than the angle of incidence θ.

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Title Standing waves
Book Title
Interaction of Radiation with Surfaces and Electron Tunneling
8.3.1 Introduction
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Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter
  • G. Chiarotti
  • Authors
  • R. Colella
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