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Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers

Abstract

This chapter discusses nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of polymers. The topics related to certain theoretical aspects, concepts of material design, and evaluation techniques for second- and third-order NLO polymers as well as for two-photon absorbing organic and polymeric materials are discussed. The hyperpolarizability (β) and second-order bulk susceptibility (χ(2)) values have been measured for a large number of chromophores in solution and in polymeric films in attempts to identify efficient second-order NLO polymers. The product (μβ) obtained from electric-field-induced second-harmonic (EFISH) measurements of several second-order NLO polymers is tabulated. A number of poled side-chain NLO polymers have employed for second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is a coherent process and arises due to purely electronic contributions and does not depend on the population of the excited state. In a degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) process, three optical beams of the same frequency interact with the material to create a fourth beam of the same frequency. The optical Kerr gate (OKG) is a process that arises due to optically induced birefringence caused by a nonlinear phase shift. Self-focusing and defocusing (SFD) arise from the intensity dependence of the refractive index of the medium. The two-photon absorption (TPA) phenomenon is one of the important third-order NLO features. The observed TPA cross-sections of a large variety of organic and polymeric materials are in the range of several tens GM to the order of ~ 104 GM. The third-order NLO properties are very sensitive to the length of the π-electron conjugation.

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About this content

Title
Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers
Book Title
Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook
Book DOI
10.1007/978-0-387-69002-5
Chapter DOI
10.1007/978-0-387-69002-5_49
Part of
Volume
Editors
  • James E. Mark Send Email (1)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Crosley Tower, Martin Luther King Drive, 45221-0172, Cincinnati, OH
  • Authors
  • W. M. K. P. Wijekoon Send Email (2)
  • K.-S. Lee Send Email (3)
  • P. N. Prasad Send Email (4)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 2 Applied Materials, 3303 Scott Blvd, 10852, 95054, Santa Clara, CA
  • 3 Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Hannam University, 306-791, Daejeon, Korea
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, The State University of New York at Buffalo, 14260-3000, Buffalo, NY
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