Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers


This chapter discusses nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of polymers. The topics related to certain theoretical aspects, concepts of material design, and evaluation techniques for second- and third-order NLO polymers as well as for two-photon absorbing organic and polymeric materials are discussed. The hyperpolarizability (β) and second-order bulk susceptibility (χ(2)) values have been measured for a large number of chromophores in solution and in polymeric films in attempts to identify efficient second-order NLO polymers. The product (μβ) obtained from electric-field-induced second-harmonic (EFISH) measurements of several second-order NLO polymers is tabulated. A number of poled side-chain NLO polymers have employed for second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is a coherent process and arises due to purely electronic contributions and does not depend on the population of the excited state. In a degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) process, three optical beams of the same frequency interact with the material to create a fourth beam of the same frequency. The optical Kerr gate (OKG) is a process that arises due to optically induced birefringence caused by a nonlinear phase shift. Self-focusing and defocusing (SFD) arise from the intensity dependence of the refractive index of the medium. The two-photon absorption (TPA) phenomenon is one of the important third-order NLO features. The observed TPA cross-sections of a large variety of organic and polymeric materials are in the range of several tens GM to the order of ~ 104 GM. The third-order NLO properties are very sensitive to the length of the π-electron conjugation.

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Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers
Book Title
Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook
Book DOI
Chapter DOI
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  • James E. Mark Send Email (1)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Crosley Tower, Martin Luther King Drive, 45221-0172, Cincinnati, OH
  • Authors
  • W. M. K. P. Wijekoon Send Email (2)
  • K.-S. Lee Send Email (3)
  • P. N. Prasad Send Email (4)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 2 Applied Materials, 3303 Scott Blvd, 10852, 95054, Santa Clara, CA
  • 3 Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Hannam University, 306-791, Daejeon, Korea
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, The State University of New York at Buffalo, 14260-3000, Buffalo, NY
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