In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Oxidation of Carbon Nanomaterials

Abstract

This chapter describes how to employ In situ Raman spectroscopy to determine conditions for selective oxidation and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanodiamond (ND); measure and control their crystal size; and improve the fundamental understanding of effects of temperature, quantum confinement, and surface chemistry on Raman spectra of nanocrystalline materials. Oxidation provides a great potential for the purification and functionalization of carbon nanomaterials. In situ Raman spectroscopy during oxidation of CNTs enables a time-resolved investigation of the oxidation process and can identify changes in material structure and composition in real time, allowing for an accurate determination of the optimal oxidation conditions. Since the intensity ratio between the D and G band (ID/IG) indicates the degree of disorder in carbon materials, elimination of amorphous carbon and disordered structures upon oxidation can be monitored using in situ Raman spectroscopy. In situ Raman studies under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions demonstrated the possibility of selectively removing amorphous carbon from CNT samples between 350ºC and 400ºC without damaging the tubes. The chapter investigates the potential of air oxidation to selectively remove sp2-bonded carbon from ND powders and introduce a simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly route to purify ND powders. It also explores the capabilities of air oxidation for adjusting the crystal size in ND powders. Raman spectral features, such as the G band of graphitic carbon, can be used to estimate the temperature of the samples during material characterization thus preventing laser-induced oxidation, extensive graphitization, and/or evaporation of carbon nanomaterials.

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Title
In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Oxidation of Carbon Nanomaterials
Book Title
Raman Spectroscopy for Nanomaterials Characterization
Book DOI
10.1007/978-3-642-20620-7
Chapter DOI
10.1007/978-3-642-20620-7_12
Part of
Volume
Editors
  • Challa S. S. R. Kumar (1)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 1 Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
  • Authors
  • Sebastian Osswald (1_12)
  • Yury Gogotsi (2_12)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 1_12 Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Science, Naval Postgraduate School, l93943, Monterey, CA, USA
  • 2_12 Department of Materials Science and Engineering and A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, 19104, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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