Nonlinear Raman Scattering Spectroscopy for Carbon Nanomaterials


This chapter deals with two types of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy: hyper-Raman scattering (HRS) spectroscopy and broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. As an application example, these methods are applied for characterizing carbon nanomaterials. According to the selection rules, the HRS spectroscopy can in principle be used as an alternative for IR spectroscopy in biochemical imaging or electrochemical research. Indeed, this nonlinear spectroscopy has several advantages; IR-mode detection is possible even in IR-opaque media and its spatial resolution is much better than IR microscopy. The experimental setup for the broadband CARS is rather simple because only two pulses are needed for three-color CARS emission. This chapter explains the recent results on resonance HRS spectra of fullerene and carbon nanotubes. Although HRS has been mainly utilized for characterizing dielectric materials in the field of physics, these examples clearly show a possibility of HRS as a spectroscopic tool in the fields of molecular science and nanomaterials science. Since the broadband CARS can obtain multiple vibrational modes simultaneously, the time-resolved broadband CARS can probe vibrational information in time-frequency domains. The chapter also presents an example of two-dimensional observation of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) phonons using the time-resolved broadband CARS. To study interactions and dynamics of electrons and phonons in SWNTs is of great importance for understanding their unique properties. Nonlinear Raman spectroscopy has several unique features because of being the multiphoton optical processes. From the viewpoint of the optical diffraction limit, nonlinear optical spectroscopy has much better spatial resolution than the linear one.

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Nonlinear Raman Scattering Spectroscopy for Carbon Nanomaterials
Book Title
Raman Spectroscopy for Nanomaterials Characterization
Book DOI
Chapter DOI
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  • Challa S. S. R. Kumar (1)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 1 Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
  • Authors
  • Katsuyoshi Ikeda (1_5)
  • Kohei Uosaki (1_5) (2_5)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 1_5 Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan
  • 2_5 International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, 305-0044, Japan
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