Extraction and Production of Cellulose Nanofibers


The chapter will content the review of different methodologies used for obtaining nanofibers of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials and bacterial cellulose. The first part of the chapter will deal with the extraction of cellulose. The classic methodology implies alkaline and acid treatment, but new ones include milder chemical conditions as well as chemo-enzymatic protocols. The second part deals with production of nanofibers from cellulose. Extraction of cellulose nanoparticles from lignocellulose materials has different routes: acid hydrolysis, mechanical, and enzymatic treatments. Strong acid hydrolysis promotes transversal cleavage of non-crystalline fractions of cellulose microfibrils, leading to the so-called cellulose nanocrystals or whiskers. Nanocrystals are characterized by high crystallinity and their aqueous suspensions display a colloidal behavior. On the other hand, strong mechanical treatment that imposes high shear forces to cellulose fibers allows the extraction of microfibrils and microfibril aggregates with high aspect ratio which form highly entangled networks. This kind of nanocellulose is called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Although widely used the mechanical process developed for the production of MFC has an important drawback which is the high energy input involved (several passes through high-pressure homogenizers which get blocked frequently). In the last years, enzymatic and chemical pretreatments have been proposed to reduce the energy input of the process. Moreover, microbially produced cellulose pellicles appear also as an attractive route of cellulose nanofibers, which will also be described in the chapter.

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Extraction and Production of Cellulose Nanofibers
Book Title
Handbook of Polymer Nanocomposites. Processing, Performance and Application
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  • Jitendra K. Pandey Send Email (1)
  • Hitoshi Takagi Send Email (2)
  • Antonio Norio Nakagaito Send Email (3)
  • Hyun-Joong Kim Send Email (4)
  • Editor Affiliation
  • 1 University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun, India
  • 2 Advanced Materials Division, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 3 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 4 College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
  • Authors
  • A. Vazquez Send Email (5)
  • M. Laura Foresti Send Email (5)
  • Juan I. Moran Send Email (6)
  • Viviana P. Cyras Send Email (6)
  • Author Affiliation
  • 5 Instituto de Tecnología en Polímeros y Nanotecnología (ITPN), Engineering Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, National Research Council (CONICET), Las Heras, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 6 Facultad de Ingeniería, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA), Universidad de Mar del Plata, Juan B Justo 4302 (7600), Mar del Plata, Argentina
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